Activated carbon, also known as charcoal, is a natural filter medium that is widely used in water filtration systems. It has a great capacity to remove pollutants, can improve the taste of water, and has a long history as a filter medium. However, no filter medium can remove all contaminants, so complex filtration systems are often used to provide high-quality filtered water. Activated carbon is usually produced from materials with a high carbon content and low concentration of inorganic substances such as charcoal, bio-waste (leaves, rice husks, coconut shells, waste paper, etc.). It is a carbonaceous adsorbent synthesized from carbonaceous materials with a high carbon content, low ash content and significant volatile matter through physical materials, chemicals, or a combination of both.
Activated carbon adsorption physically binds gas or liquid phase molecules to the surface of the activated carbon. Biopolymers, metal oxides, clay, and other nanocarbons are used as counterparts in activated carbon compounds. Due to its versatility, researchers have tried to use activated carbon to reduce costs by generating it from inexpensive sources or by modifying its surface. However, there are certain limitations to using activated carbon in wastewater treatment. For instance, it is not effective for removing heavy metals or organic compounds that are not soluble in water.
Additionally, it can be difficult to regenerate and reuse activated carbon after it has been used for wastewater treatment. In conclusion, activated carbon is an effective filter medium for removing contaminants from wastewater. Nevertheless, it has certain limitations that should be taken into account when considering its use for wastewater treatment. By understanding these limitations and using other filter media in combination with activated carbon, it is possible to achieve high-quality filtered water.